Ghulam Mohyuddin Chaudhary.
Retinopathy in diabetic patients.
Pak J Med Res Jan ;44(2):82-7.
Objective: To determine the frequency of various types of retinopathy in diabetic patients. Design of study: Descriptive and analytical. Place and duration of study: Diabetic Outdoor Clinic of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore where 3275 diabetic patients were studied, from January 1996 to December 1997. Results: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) was found in 946 out of 3275 (28.9%) patients, with high frequency in obese cases (64.6%) and females (53.5%). Majority of the patients (83.2%) over 40 of age had DR which increased with longer duration of Diabetes mellitus (DM) (p<0.0001). Optic atrophy was observed in 0.4%, maculopathy in 5.2%, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) in 11.7%, Background Diabetic Retinopathy (BDR) in 87.8%, atherosclerotic changes in 15.1% and 6% had more than one type. Out of BDR hard exudates were seen in 46.3%, micro aneurysms in 27.1%, Dot hemorrhages in 25%, soft exudates in 23.3% and flame hemorrhages in 14.8%. More than one type of BDR was seen in 63%. Out of atherosclerotic changes A.V. nipping were seen in 15.1% and silver wiring in 8%. Association of DR with neuropathy and nephropathy was noted in 87.4% and with hypertension in 49.7%. This association was stronger in obese patients (p<0.001). Conclusion: DR was observed in 29% of diabetic patients. It is more common in females, obese and those with longer duration of diseases. Presence of neuropathy, nephropathy and hypertension increased the risk of retinopathy, hence necessitating early diagnosis and more aggressive approach for the management of DM.
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