Rafi Ahmed Ghauri, Hussain Bux, Riaz Hussain Shah.
Incidence of Hypertension in type - 2 Diabetic nephropathy.
Med Channel Jan ;13(2):21-5.

OBJECTIVE: To detennine the Incidence of hypertension in type -2 diabetic nephropathy. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational (descriptive) prospective type of study. PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY: This study was carried out in Medical Unit - IV Liaquat University of Health & Sciences Jamshoro from F` January 2006 to 25th November 2006 for 11 months, patients front Hyderabad, surrounding area and referred patients from DHQ Hospitals were included in this study that has filled the inclusion criteria. MATERIAL & METHODS: 100 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after taking informed consent, these patients were followed up in Medical Unit - IV with complete history, physical examination, laboratory investigations were done and observed. Those patients who had Diabetes nephropathy with & without hypertension were enrolled in this study, clinical and laboratory data were recorded as base line then weekly after admission in medical ward. Laboratory investigation ie Blood Sugar Fasting/Random, Blood pressure & Protein Urea. Urea, critinine, electrolytes, lipids profile, serum cholesterol were also recorded. At each visit blood pressure was recorded by using standard sphygmomanometer after taking the 15 minutes rest and mean blood pressure was calculated by formula (Diastolic Pressure +1/3 pulse pressure). At each visit veins blood was drawn for Hb%, Sugar, S.Sodium, &Urea, S.Creatinin, S.Potassium, S.Albumin & creatinin and its clearance, fasting lipid profile, cholesterol (HDL+LDL) Triglyceride were recorded. All patients were told to not to change their dietry habbits during study, the patients were also told to refrain from exercise during 24 hours collection of urine. Following inclusion criteria were taken in to account for selection of patients for this study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All diabetic patients, Diabetic patients with protein urea with out hypertension, Diabetic patients with protein urea and hypertension, Diabetic patients of both sex male / female, Diabetic patients of age 40-70 years, Dipstic positive proteinuria, All patients with S. Urea, S.Creatinin and K level. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Following patients were excluded from this study Patients with infection, congestive heart failure.Patients who had serwn creatinin and serum potassium level more then 3.5mg/dI and 5.5m Eql/Ltr respectively. Patients who were on con tisol and immuno suppress therapy for any reason. Patients with HTN only. Patients with renovascular disease. Patients with chronic cough & patients who were pregnant or having breast feeding to child. RESULTS: From about one lac population total 3317 patients reported in OPD and admitted in ward of type - II diabetes mellitus were 2003, HTN 704, DM+HTN 522, Type -II diabetic nephropathy without hypertension 28 & Type - 11 Diabetic nephropathy with hypertension were 60 patients included in study. Both male & female were included in study. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that all patients suffering from type - II diabetes mellitus shall have nephropathy which will cause hypertension. The type -11 diabetic nephropathy is more common in hypertensive patients then non hypertensive patients.

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