Khan Mohammad Sajid, Riffat Parveen, Durre Sabih, Kamal Chaouachi, Ayisha Naeem, Rubaida Mahmood, Rahat Shamim.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in hookah smokers, cigarette smokers and.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;57(12):595-9.
non-smokers Objective: To find CEA levels in smokers of different categories (hookah smokers, cigarette smokers smoking different brands of cigarettes and different number of cigarettes per day) and to correlate CEA levels with type and rate of smoking. Methods: A total of 122 cigarette smokers (115 men and 7 women) and 14 hookah smokers (all men) with age ranging from 16-80 years were studied. CEA levels were also measured in 36 non-smokers who served as controls. Enhanced chemilumiscent immunometeric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in our subjects. Results: The mean CEA levels of cigarette smokers were compared with the mean CEA levels observed in hookah smokers (7.16 ±10.4 ng/ml) and non-smokers (2.15 ± 0.68 ng/ml). The mean value of CEA level observed in cigarette smokers, 9.19 ± 14.9 ng/ml (n=122) was significantly higher than the levels in non-smokers and hookah smokers (p<0.0067). It was also observed that CEA levels increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The highest levels were observed in smokers who smoke more than 31 cigarettes per day. The smokers that use relatively cheaper brands of cigarettes had higher levels of CEA compared to those who use high quality brands. Conclusion: It was concluded that the brands of cigarettes (which were ranked on the basis of price) and the rate of smoking both play an important role in raising the CEA levels. Further the common belief that hookah also called narghile or shisha is a relatively safe mode of smoking is not completely correct; a significant proportion of hookah smokers have high levels of CEA although mean levels of hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers (JPMA 57:595;2007).
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