Gholamreza Asadi Karam, Hamid Reza Rashidinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Aghaee, Jafar Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Rahmani, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Hosein Azin, Mohammad Reza Mirzaee, Mohammad Khaksari.
Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.
Pak J Pharm Sci Jan ;21(2):180-4.

To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P < 0.05 considered as significant difference. Serum glucose increased significantly at 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na+) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K+) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K+ significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K+ in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na+ and K+, thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

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