Saeeda Baig, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Waqar Uddin Ahmed, Ambreen Arif, Huma Qureshi.
Frequency of hepatitis C and D super infection in patients with hepatitis B related complex liver disorders.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak Jan ;19(11):699-703.

Objective: To determine the frequency of super infection of hepatitis C and D in patients with hepatitis B related complex liver disorders and the distribution of HBV genotypes in these patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gastroenterology Unit of PMRC in JPMC, Karachi, from July 2006 to June 2007. Methodology: All patients registered for HBV associated infections were selected. Blood was drawn from 180 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Those with an incomplete test profile were excluded. All clinical conditions were investigated through liver function tests, coagulation profile, and findings at abdominal ultrasonography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and liver biopsy. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were diagnosed either on the basis of histology, or on a combination of radiological, endoscopic and laboratory data. Hepatitis B virus DNA was extracted from serum, and subjected to a nested PCR using the type specific primers for HBV genotype. Descriptive statistics were used for frequency and mean determination. Results: The 129 patients finally selected for statistical analysis included 108 (84%) males and 21 (16%) females. The age ranged from 6- 68 years (mean=31.5 ±12.39 years). There were 70 (54.2%) patients of non-cirrhotic, chronic hepatitis (CLD), 38 (29.4%) carriers, 12 (9.3%) cirrhotics and 9 (6.9%) HCC patients. Among the 129 patients, 45 (34.9%) were positive for double infection with HDV. These included 35 CLD cases, 7 cirrhotic and 3 carriers, 4 (3.1%) patients were positive for double infection with HCV including one with CLD, 2 with cirrhosis and one with HCC. Triple infection with HBV/HDV/HCV was present in 4 (3.1%) patients who had CLD. Approximately 59% (n=76) patients were not coinfected, though 9 had developed HCC. The genotype distribution of HBV was observed as D in 98 (76%) patients, A in 24 (18.6%), and AD mix in 7 (5.4%). Genotypes B, C, E or F were not found. Accordingly, genotype D strains were the predominant strains among all categories. Conclusion: The frequency of super infection of hepatitis C and D was found to be highest in HBV cirrhosis patients compared to patients having chronic liver disease (non-cirrhotics) and carriers. Genotype D of hepatitis B virus was found dominant in all hepatitis B related complex liver disorders.

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