Subash Chandir, Hamidah Hussain, Naseem Salahuddin, Mohammad Amir, Farheen Ali, Ismat Lotia, Amir Javed Khan.
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective review of 194 cases at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;61(2):105-9.

Objective: To describe the types and treatment outcomes of the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in a tertiary care hospital in a high burden tuberculosis country. Method: A retrospective case series study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital (LNH), the largest private tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. All cases diagnosed and treated as EPTB between November 2005 and February 2007 were included. Data was retrieved from medical records on demographics, clinical, laboratory, and outcome status. Results: A total of 194 patients treated for EPTB were identified. Mean age of patients was 34 ± 16.4 years, and 75% of patients were female. Lymph nodes and spine were the most common sites involved (60%). The cure rate was 40.7%. There was no difference in cure rate of males and females (p=0.99). Conclusion: EPTB is an important clinical problem in Pakistan. Due to lack of guidelines for diagnosis and duration of treatment in EPTB most physicians in Pakistan treat patients based on clinical symptoms and for prolonged duration of 12, to even as long as 24 months. The National TB Program, and chest and infectious disease societies must develop standardized guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of EPTB (JPMA 60:105; 2010).

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