Waquaruddin Ahmed, Ambreen Arif, Syed Ejaz Alam, Huma Qureshi.
Changing trend of viral hepatitis — “a twenty one year report from Pakistan Medical Research Council Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi”.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;61(2):86-9.

Objective: To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. Results: A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Year wise analysis of proportion of hepatitis B and C showed gradual decline of Hepatitis B and rise of Hepatitis C with a transition period between 1995 and 1996. Conclusions: Hepatitis C is the most common viral hepatitis, followed by hepatitis B both are more common in males. Hepatitis B is seen a decade earlier than hepatitis C. Rising trend of hepatitis C and declining evidence of hepatitis B could be due to increased awareness and detection of hepatitis C and effective vaccination for hepatitis B in the country (JPMA 60:86; 2010).

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