Humaira Zafar, Kiran Tauseef Bukhari.
Strategies for the prevention of rheumatic fever and its complications.
Isra Med J Jan ;3(3):114-6.

Rheumatic fever (RF) and Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) continues to be a global health problem since long. Moreover, it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in younger age group i.e. 3–18 years. RF is a non suppurative complication of Group A Streptococcus Pyogenes (GASP) pharyngeal infection observed in post streptococcus sequelae. The reason for this is the negligence of diagnosis and improper treatment. While if diagnosed early and treated well within 10 days of onset of pharyngitis, occurrence of this life threatening condition can be prevented. Apart from many virulent factors produced by GASP, the most important ones for the pathogenesis are the M proteins i.e. antigens and the Streptolysin O. Only M proteins of GASP have the strong rheumatogenic potential while the rises in Streptolysin O titer levels are suggestive of recent GASP pharyngeal infection. The significant level of ASO titer is >200. The current review article will provide update information regarding early diagnosis of GASP pharyngeal infection by ASO titers in different ages. Thus, by initiating early treatment, the morbidity and mortality rates due to RF and RHD can be reduced in under developed countries like ours.

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