Butt A, Khan A, Alam A, Ahmad S, Shah S, Shafqat F, Naqvi A.
Hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of 76 cases.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;48(7):197-201.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies world wide. We present data on 76 patients admitted to the Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Mean age was 52.2 +/- 11.3 years. Eighty six percent were males and 14% females. Eighty-six percent patients had underlying cirrhosis documented on ultrasound examination. Seventy-five percent were positive for anti HCV, 10% for HBsAg positive, 10% for both HBsAg and anti HCV and 5% cases had negative viral serology. Main clinical features were abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites. Forty-three percent patients were Child-Pugh class A, 30% class B and 13% class C and 14% were non cirrhotic. Mean alfa fetoprotein levels were 142 +/- 155 ng/ml (range 2.7 to 1470). Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was established in 60 patients by fine needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasound guidance. Two patients died after biopsy due to uncontrollable bleeding. Fifty-four percent patients had a solitary lesion and 46% had multifocal or diffuse lesions. The average size of lesion was 7.8 x 8.1 cm. Twenty-two patients received intralesional alcohol injection. Fifty-four percent of these with a tumor size greater than 8 cm died during follow up. The major cause of death was liver failure in 8 patients and fatal bleeding occurred in 4 patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma has a high prevalence in middle aged males with a strong association with anti HCV positive cirrhosis. Patients with a tumour size greater than 8 cm have a poor response to intralesional alcohol injection.

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