Rabia Arshad, Nasim Karim, Fahad Azam.
Placental morphology and feto-maternal outcomes in gestational diabetes.
J Bahria Uni Med Dental Coll Jan ;3(1):30-3.

Abstract: Objective: To observe the placental morphology and feto- maternal outcomes in patients having gestational diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive pilot study placentae were collected from 20 patients having gestational diabetes. They received oral and or parenteral drugs along with diet control and exercise during pregnancy. After verbal informed consent of the patients, placentae were collected within 30-40 minutes of delivery and preserved in formalin. Gross examination was done including weight, size consistency of placental tissue, attachment, size and color of the cord, membranes complete or incomplete, retro-placental hemorrhages and any other gross abnormality in the placental tissue. Weight and health of the baby and mode of delivery were observed as determinants of fetal and maternal outcome. Results: Mean placental size was 18.3±3.22 cm and 14.2±2.14 cm in two dimensions with mean placental width of 2.4±0.94 cm. Mean placental weight was 680± 122.9 grams, mean cord length was 19.55±7.22 cm and mean cord width 1.17±0.51cm. Out of 20 placentae, 13 placentae were disc shaped, 19 placentae were soft in consistency, 8 were blue in color, 7 had central insertion of umbilical cord, 14 had complete membranes and 16 had other gross pathologies such as hemorrhages, fibrinoid necrosis etc. Weight of the baby was 3.4±0.38 kg. There was 1 intrauterine death and out of 20 patients 13 had cesarean deliveries. Conclusion: Gross morphology of placenta exhibited deformities with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

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