Saira Afzal, Mustehsan Bashir, Muhammad Arif Khan, Javaria Tehzeeb, Anum Manzoor Aaila Sajid Dar, Muhammad Umair, Abeera Ishaq Butt, Aroobah Iqbal, Aniqa Anwar M Jawad Bashir, Shkat Junaid M Mishkat, Lman Ashraf M Salman.
Relationship of parental health and social support during pregnancy with the risk of non-syndromic oral clefts: a case control study.
Ann King Edward Med Uni Jan ;21(4):262-8.

Oral clefts are divided into cleft lip, cleft palate and cleft lip along with cleft palate. Cleft palate is defined as an inability of palatal shelves to approximate and close during the first months of embryogenic period thus leaving an opening in the roof of the mouth and forming communication between the nasal and oral cavities. Objective: To determine the relationship of risk of oral clefts with parental health and social support Study Design: Case Control Study. Study Setting and Duration: Various hospitals in Lahore and 3 month duration. Materials and Methods: A Case Control Study was conducted. A total of 100 subjects (50 cases, 50 controls) were included. Sampling was done by purposive method. Data was collected with the help of Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire and Social Sup-port Questionnaire after taking their informed consent. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe quantitative variables like age. Test of significance were app-lied. Results: 56% of cases were females and 44% were males. Mean age of mothers was 27 and fathers was 31. Most mothers were uneducated (36%) while most fathers were educated till matric (34%). Income of most parents was in the range of 10,000-20,000 PKR (44%). 24% of controls were females and 76% were males. The associations of oral cleft was found significant with parental respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, skin-related, genitourinary health, easy fatigability, health habits, anxiety, anger, paternal nervous system health, sensitivity, and maternal frequency of illness, depression and feeling of inadequacy (p < 0.05). Maternal social support categories indicated that cases were less supported than controls: number of persons available and level of satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Oral clefts have a multi-factorial etiology. Hence, an effective preventive program should take into account parental health and social support factors.

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