Anila Haroon, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Shakeel Ahmed, Ali Syed Muhammad Akhtar, Syed Rehan Ali, Humaira Maheen, Dhanwanti Dileep.
Risk factors for intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants from a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;64(10):1146-50.

Objective: To determine the incidence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage in pre-term infants, along with adverse neonatal outcomes associated with the disease.. Methods: The retrospective case control study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised patients' records from January 2004 to December 2009 of preterm babies from 26-35 weeks of gestation who had Intraventricular Haemorrhage of any grade. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound scan. Controls were preterm births matched with the cases according to gestational age (±1 week) and birth weight (±150 grams). SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Result: Of the total 201 preterm babies in the study, there were 67(33.33%) cases and 134(66.66%) controls; the respective ratio being 1:2.The incidence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage in the study population was 22.1 per 1000 live births. The odds of developing Intraventricular Haemorrhage was substantially higher in babies with respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio: 3.77; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.52-9.37; p<0.004) and who were given mechanical ventilation (odds ratio: 23.6; 95% Confidence Interval: 5.09-109.5; p<0.001). There was a four-fold increase in risk of Intraventricular Haemorrhage in babies who received surfactant administration (odds ratio: 4.26; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.77-10.22; p<0.001). Out of 67 cases, 50(74.6%) re-demonstrated the same grade, 13 (19.4%) were resolved, and 4(6%) progressed. Overall, there were 38 death; the mortality rate being 56.71. Conclusion: The risk of Intraventricular Haemorrhage was substantially higher in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, etc., and the mortality rate was higher in babies with severe disease.

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