Abdul Hamid, Qaiser Inayat, Jahanzaib Khan.
Incidence and nature of human congenital anomalies.
J Med Sci Jan ;23(2):69-72.

Objectives: To determine the relative incidence and nature of various congenital anomalies (CAs) in 1000 live births at District Peshawar. Material and Methods: The study sample included 1000 cases, in the age group between 15 and 45 years, admitted in Gynecology and Obstetrics unit of the Kalsoom Maternity Hospital, Peshawar for the purpose of delivery during the study period from June 2013 to June 2014. Complete history was taken on a printed Performa. Besides the preliminary investigations all the cases were subjected to repeated ultrasonic examination in order to look for the progress of pregnancy and any fetal congenital anomaly. After the delivery all the live newborns were thoroughly clinically examined for all types of gross congenital anomalies (CAs). Newborns suspected of having cardiac or intracranial congenital anomalies were subjected to echocardiography and ultrasonographic examination respectively. Results: Out of 1000 cases, 36 cases were found to have congenital anomalies at the time of birth. Therefore the total incidence/ frequency of CAs in the study group were 3.6%. 22.22% of the CAs belonged to musculoskeletal system. 19.44% were those of central nervous system and similarly 19.44% were of the genitourinary system. The other systems involved were, cardiovascular system 13.88% and craniofacial anomalies 11.11%. Multiple anomalies were detected in 08.33% of the cases while gastrointestinal tract and chromosomal anomalies contributed to 2.77% each. Conclusions: It was concluded that there is a fairly high incidence of CAs in our population deserving serious attention. Many of the possible risk factors are avoidable if necessary precautions are taken in time. The condition can be detected at an early age in the intrauterine period by ultrasonic examination and possible preventive and curative measures can be taken in time.

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