Mohammad Junaid Sethi, Sadia Sethi, Rashid Iqbal.
Frequency of refractive errors in children visiting eye out patient department agency head quarter hospital Landi Kotal.
Gomal J Med Sci Jan ;7(2):114-7.

Background: Refractive errors in children are one of the leading causes of preventable blindness. Prevalence of various refractive errors in children is alarming. The purpose of this study was to find the frequency of refractive errors, identify their types, and suggest guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment. Material & Methods: It was a descriptive study conducted at Agency Head Quarter Hospital Landi Kotal from January 2006 to December 2007. Five hundred children visiting eye OPD with refractive errors were evaluated. After adequate cycloplegia, standard refraction protocol was followed and detailed ophthalmic examination of every child was carried out. Results: Out of 4974 children 500 (10%) had refractive errors. It was found that 63% patients were male while 37% females, between 1-15 years and about 40% were belonging to educated families. Mean age of children was 6 years. 58% had decreased vision and 68% parents were worried that their children had crossed eyes. 58% children were hypermetropic, 36% myopic, and 6% had astigmatism. All children showed improvement in vision with glasses. Conclusion: Hypermetropia is the most frequent refractive error in children. All the children with refractive errors needed cycloplegic refraction and glasses remain the mainstay of treatment. Mass screening is required for early diagnosis and treatment of children with refractive errors.

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