Muhammad Farooq, H A Butt, Abdul Hameed Chaudri.
Management of Cardiovascular Stress Responses to Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation using Esmolol Hydrochloride.
Ann King Edward Med Uni Jan ;5(2):128-30.

Results of prospective double blind randomized controlled study over one year period on 50 ASA status i & ii patients presented using an i.v. bolus of isotonic saline or Esmolol hydrochloride before induction of anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Various haemodynamic changes were measured to assess the pressor response to laryngoscopy & tracheal intubation. Significant reduction in the pressor response was observed in esmolol group after five minutes of intubation. Changes in the heart rate remained significant even fifteen minutes after intubation. Esmolol hydrochloride can be regarded as a safe and effective agent to suppress the cardiovascular stress response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.

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