Shaukat Ali, Kh Lail.
Study of Relation Between Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) in Cousin Marriages in Mardan.
Ophthalmol Update Jan ;15(3):291-4.

Background: In Pakistan, the prevalence of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) in neonates was found to be 4 per 1000 live births. Prevention of congenital cardiovascular defects has been hampered by a lack of information about modifiable risk factors for abnormalities in cardiac development. Over the past decade, there have been major breakthroughs in the understanding of inherited causes of CHD, including the identification of specific genetic abnormalities for some types of malformations. Cousin marriages is widespread in Pakistan. The majority of studies on cousin marriages in Pakistan have been carried out in urban metropolitan areas, and data on rural populations are scarce Objective: To determine the relation between ventricular septal defect and cousin marriages in children presenting in a D.H.Q Hospital Mardan. Setting: Pediatric Unit (indoor, outdoor nursery unit ,emergency room), Department of Pediatric Medicine, in D.H.Q hospital Mardan. Study Design: Case control study. Duration of Study: Six months (1/2/2015 to 2/8/2015). Material and methods: In this study sample size of 84 patients; 42 cases and 42 controls was calculated. taking expected percentage of cousin marriages i.e. 49% in cases with VSD and 29% in controls (without VSD), presenting to our hospital. Non probability, consecutive sampling technique was used for sample collection. Results: Our study shows that in case group, mean age was 1 years, where as in control group, mean age was also 1 year. In case group, (62%) patients were male while (38%) patients were female. Where as in control group, (58%) patients were male and (42%) patients were female. In case group, (51%) patients had cousin marriages while (49%) patients didn`t had cousin marriages. Where as in control group, (26%) patients had cousin marriages and (74%) patients didn`t had cousin marriages. Conclusion: Our study concludes that there is an association between parental consanguinity and congenital heart disease in children presenting to children unit of D.H.Q Hospital Mardan.

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