Sumaira Amir, Dilshad Alam Khan, Aamir Asrar, Mubashir Jalis.
Prevalence of Refractive Errors Causing Amblyopia in Children.
Ophthalmol Update Jan ;15(3):251-3.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors causing Amblyopia amongst age group 5-14years. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: Amanat Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jan 2014 -Jan 2016. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, out of 2500 children, 500children were found to had normal visual acuity. Ocular alignment, visual acuity, pupillary reactions, cover testing and cycloplegic refraction were recorded for all children by an optometrist. In children, refractive diagnostics had to be determined by objective refraction under cycloplegia plus subjective refraction. In case of children having amblyopia, spectacles were prescribed along with patching treatment of good eye. Results: A total of 2000 children were found to had refractive errors. The percentage of females were more than males in total population (62% vs. 38%).There were 652(26.08%) myope, hyperopes 450(18.0%), astigmatics 248(9.92%), anisometropics 145(5.8%) and amblyopia 650(26.0%) in total patient population. Among 652 myopic patients, there was 52(7.97%) with -<1.0D, 340(52.14%) were -1.0D to -5.0D, and 260(39.87%) were greater than -5.0D, 136(54.83%) having myopic astigmatism, 85(58.62%) were having anisometropia and 345(68.31%) were found to had amblyopia. On the other hand in case of hyperopic children the figures were 35(7.77%), 290(64.44%), 125(27.77%), 112(45.66%), 60(41.37%) and 160(31.68%) for hyperopia <+1.0D, +1.0D to +3.75D %,> +4.0D, hyperopic astigmatism, hyperopic anisometropia and amblyopia respectively. There were 345(52.91%) myopics, hyperopics 160(35.53%), astigmatic and anisometropic amblyopes 83(33.46%) and 62(42.75%) respectively. Conclusion: Amblyopia is not uncommon in the early years of life. More myopic children are affected as compared to hyperopic children.

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