Mohammad Arif, Muhammad Usman, Farah Yousuf.
Convergence Insufficiency & its Relation to the Use of Cellular Phone.
Ophthalmol Update Jan ;15(3):210-2.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationship between convergence insufficiency and use of cellular phone for long duration. Methodology : Prospective case controlled pilot study of 50 patients between ages of 5-20 years were studied during 4 months period 1st August to 30th November 2016 using optical devices (cellular phone) for prolong time (more than 6hrs daily). History was taken and visually acuity recorded. Symptoms related to this condition e.g. headache, asthenopia and eye strain were noted. Target for near point were used to assess NPC. Ocular motility tests were done in order to exclude movement disorder. Result: Fort nine (49) out of 50 patients using cellular phone for more than 6 hours had significant NPC. There were also symptoms of eye strain and reading difficulties after short time in these patients. 50 control patients not using cellular phone or for less than 2 hrs had normal parameters. Conclusion: This study revealed statistically significant co-relation between convergence insufficiency and prolonged use of cellular phone, putting tremendous strain on visual functions.

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