Haroon Javaid Majid, Muhammad Farooq Afzal, Haroon Rafiul Islam, Muhammad Waris, Mahmood Ayyaz, Khawaja Muhammad Azeem, Asaf Baig Mirza.
Penetrating Injuries of The Abdominal Inferior Vena Cava - The Mayo Hospital Experience..
Ann King Edward Med Uni Jan ;5(1):29-33.

This is a retrospective study. of 16 patients with penetrating injuries of the abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC). 81% of the injuries were caused by gunshot and 19% by stabbing. 62.5% of these patients underwent lateral venorrhaphy, 18.75% underwent infrarenal ligation of the IVC and 18.75% died perioperatively before caval repair of any kind could be carried out. There was an overall mortality of 43.75%. Mortality seems to be directly related to the site of the IVC injury (higher for the suprarenal location and highest for the retrohepatic injuries), the presence of shock on admission, free bleeding and the lack of retroperitoneal tamponade at the time of surgery and also on the presence of additional vascular injuries.

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