Umema Zafar, Naila Hamid, Junaid Ahsan.
Sleep Patterns and Efficiency among Students in a Medical School.
J Med Sci Jan ;26(3):221-4.

Objective: To determine the sleep pattern of students as well as to calculate their sleep efficiency. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the Physiology Department of Khyber Medical College, Peshawar. First and Second Year MBBS students of Khyber Medical College were selected who were above 18 years age.Students were given a self designed questionnaire to fill and then their sleep efficiency (SE) was calculated using total time in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). Results: Total number of students inducted in the study was 115. Their average bedtime and wake up time were midnight and 7.00 AM respectively. The average time in bed was documented as 10 hours. The Total Sleep Time reported was around 7 and a half hours. The average Sleep Efficiency of the students was computed to be 83.9%. Only 1.7% students used sleep-inducing medications, while caffeine consumption was 17%. Students? perception of their sleep quality and their work efficiency was good, on Likert scale. Conclusions: The average sleep efficiency computed was good when compared to standards around the world. The sleep patterns including bedtime and wakeup time of majority of the students were healthy.

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