Anum Khan, Mariam Saeedullah, Kiran Khan, Kamran Khan, Badar Qureshi.
Smoking and Successful Dental Implant Osseo Integration.
J Med Sci Jan ;26(2):132-6.

Objective: To know the outcome of Implant osseo integration in Smokers and non Smokers. Material and Methods: This study was employed the observational research method, carried out at Islamic International Dental College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria were established in order to refine the results. The patients qualifying the inclusion criteria of missing/failing teeth, sufficient quality and quantity of bone to support the implant were required to sign consent forms. Cases with documentation of uncontrolled metabolic diseases, immunosuppressed status (post renal, liver, and bone marrow transplants), chemotherapy and head and neck radiation, psychological disorders and patients on bisphosphonates medication were excluded from the research. Results: In this study, 307 implants placed in 170 patients (92 females, 78 males). 301 implants were successfully Osseo integrated while 6 failed. Out of the unsuccessful 6, 2 belonged to patients smoking more than 5 cigarettes a day qualifying as smokers according to our inclusion criteria. 301 (98%) implants were successfully Osseo integrated while 6 (2%) implants failed and had to be removed adding up to the total of 307 mentioned cases. Out of the 6 failed implants (all observed during the early phase of Osseo integration) 2 belonged to tobacco smokers while 4 failed implants were observed in non-smokers. Implant failure occurred in 3 females and 3 males equally, all being observed in the posterior quadrants of maxilla and mandible (UL6, UL4, LR6, LR4, LR5, LR6). Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for implant placement and may lead to failure of implant osseo integration.

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