Syed Abrar Ali, Mehmood Hussain, Haroon Shah, Hina Khan.
Smear layer removal efficacy of conventional endodontic irrigants v/s phytochemical extracts-an in vitro study.
Pak Oral Dental J Jan ;38(2):254-8.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two natural extracts for the irrigation of root canal. A descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Operative Dentistry & Department of Oral Biology, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Irrigation solutions were made in Operative Department.100 single rooted extracted teeth were collected from Oral Surgery Department. These teeth were disinfected and cleaned using ultrasonic tip and stored in distilled water until use. These teeth were decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10mm.Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1mm short of the apex .Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups and subjected to each irrigants for 5 minutes according to the irrigation protocol, Group A contained distilled water and was taken as control. Group B contained 17 % EDTA while Group C contained herbal extract of lemon grass and Group D contained herbal extract of Green tea. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Statistical analysis was done by using Kruskal- Wallis test (α=0.05). Group A, Group C and Group D showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from Group B where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). Group D showed removal of debris at middle third and ground portion of the tooth. EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Among all groups green tea was more effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion.

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