Malik Faisal Iftekhar, Abdul Sami, Imran Khan, Akhter Sher.
Frequency of anemia and clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure.
Pak Heart J Jan ;51(1):77-81.

Objective: To determine the frequency of anemia and its short term clinical outcome among patients with congestive heart failure. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Cardiology Department Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. The study duration was six months from January 2014 to January 2016. Patients of either gender with age more than 14 years presenting with congestive heart failure were included in the study.Sample size was calculated using WHO sample calculator. Non probability consecutive sampling technique was used for sample collection. Results: A total of 159 patients were included in the study, mean age was 68+-1.28 years. About 57% patients were males. Our study showed that the frequency of anemia was 46(29%) in patients presenting with congestive heart failure of them, in hospital mortality was 7%, and 81 % patients were rehospitalized. Conclusion: Anemia in congestive heart failure acts as a bad prognostic factor resulting in increased rate of mortality and re hospitalization.

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