Sajjad Ali, Fouad Nafees, Bushra Javed.
Frequency of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Chronic Smokers.
Pak J Med Health Sci Jan ;12(3):1259-61.

Background: Smoking is not only a risk factors for lung diseases but it is also a risk factors of developing gastrointestinal diseases. GERD is one of the common complaint of smokers. Aim : To assess the frequency of Gastroesophageal reflux disease in chronic smokers Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at at Outpatients Department (OPD) and indoor Department of Medicine, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali Memorial Trust Hospital, Lahore from 1st March to 31st August 2017. 140 smokers were included in the study. Then all patients will undergo endoscopy for confirmation of presence of absence of GERD. Data was a recorded on proforma and analyzed through SPSS v. 21.0. Results: Out of 140, GERD was detected in 26 (18.6%) cases. The frequency of GERD was significantly high in patients aged ≤45 years, Overweight or obese and smokers who are also junk food users. Conclusion: GERD is present in less than 20% cases, although not negligible. Further studies with larger cohort should be done in order to confirm the association of GERD with smoking.

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