Sabir Zaman, Kehkashan Arouj, Muhammad Muslim Khan.
Maladaptive schema modes among traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury patients.
J Med Sci Jan ;27(4):263-8.

Objectives: To explore maladaptive schema modes among traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ‘non-traumatic brain injurypatients’ in the civilian population, particularly in cases of mild and moderate brain injury. Materials and Methods: A total of 132 patients were studied, of which 96 had been diagnosed with TBI and 36 with non-TBI. All were older than 18. The classification of mild and moderate TBI was determined by the neurosurgeon on the basis of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), MRI, and CT Scan. Data was collected from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad Pakistan in the month of August and September 2018. A short Urdu version of the Schema ModeInventory (SMI) was used to establish the relationship between maladaptive schema modes, maladaptive coping style,and adaptive modes among TBI and non-TBI patients.Results: The results of the mild and moderate TBI patients indicated significant mean differences between the maladaptive coping style and adaptive mode. Similarly, a significant mean difference was seen within the demographic profiles (such as age, education, and occupation) of patients displaying maladaptive and adaptive schemas. Conclusion: Mild brain injury patients recorded a higher score in the maladaptive coping style category as compared to moderate injury. Patients with a higher score means less coping style. Further, no significant mean differences were reported among TBI and non-TBI patients.

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