Baig S, Hasnain N U, Uddin Q.
Studies on Zn, Cu, Mg, Ca and Phosphorus in maternal and cord blood.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;53(9):417-22.

Objective: To study the levels of trace elements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium( Mg), calcium( Ca) and phosphorus (P) at term and to assess their correlation in maternal and cord blood. Methods: Fifty two women and their cord blood were studied in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan at the time of delivery. Zn, Cu and Mg were analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer and Ca and P calorimetrically in maternal as well as cord blood. The results were compared with non-pregnant age matched controls. Results: Compared to controls, levels of Zn, Mg,and P were found higher in maternal and cord blood. Copper levels were found slightly lower in cord blood and Ca was significantly lower both in cord and maternal blood. Babies with birth weight less than 3 kg had higher levels of Zn, Cu and Mg than those with more than 3kg, while reverse was true for the P levels. No significant difference was observed in levels of these elements on the basis of sex of the baby, except the cord blood of the male child had higher magnesium levels than female child. Similarly no significant difference was observed between levels of zinc, copper phosphorus and magnesium in the maternal and cord blood on the basis of parity, while calcium level were significantly higher in primiparous mothers as compared to multiparous. Conclusion: The results on the whole suggest that Pakistani women have higher levels of Zn, Cu, Mg and P and a marginal Ca deficiency compared to results of studies around the world (JPMA 53:417;2003).

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