Azmat Ali, Faryal Naeem, Raiha Imran Syed.
Cephalosporin resistance in typhoid and paratyphoid infections - an alarming situation.
J Med Sci Jan ;28(1):3-5.

Objective: To determine the frequency of resistance to third generation cephalosporins in use i.e ceftriaxone and cefixime in patients with typhoid and para typhod infections.Material and Methods: This longitudinal observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islam-abad from June 2019 to Nov 2019. All patients presenting with fever having positive blood culture for salmonella typhi or paratyphi A were included. Patient`s febrile period, duration of hospital stay and days of antibiotics given were also recorded. Age, gender, Salmonella serovar and sensitivity to 11 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account. The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidaxic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levoflox-acin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, imipenem and azithromycin. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version 22 (SPSS 22). Results: Out of 125 patients 80 (64.0%) were males while 45 (36.0%) were females. 110 (88%) patients had salmonella typhi on blood culture while 15 (12%) had salmonella paratyphi A. 35 (28%) isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and cefixime. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem and azithromycin. Majority of patients (68%) stayed in hospital for 8 to 10 days.Conclusion: Cephalosporin resistance in enteric fever is rising. An earlier blood culture result is mandatory to prevent com-plications in all resistant cases.

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