Nighat Musa, Riaz Gul, Yasir Mehmood, Saira Afridi.
Frequency of Risk Factors Leading to Acute Respiratory Infections among Children under Two Year\'s age and their Gender and age Wise Comparison.
J Gandhara Med Dent Sci Jan ;3(1):16-21.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of different risk factors leading to Acute Respiratory Infections among children under two years. To determine the most susceptible age group and to compare frequency of disease in both genders. METHODOLOGY: Study design was cross sectional observational. Duration of the study was three months (September – November 2014. Study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar namely Khyber Teaching hospital & Hayatabad Medical Complex. A total of 200 children under 2 years of age who were attending outpatient department of two tertiary hospitals of Peshawar were studied. After getting consent from parents of children, data was collected from parents. A semi structured questionnaire was used as study tool. Pilot study was conducted prior to the actual study to check the feasibility of questionnaire. Children with acute respiratory tract infections were included in the study while immune compromised and children with other serious systemic diseases were excluded from the study Data was presented in the form of tables and graphs. RESULTS: Frequency of acute respiratory infections was common among males (65%) as compare to female children under two year of age. The most susceptible age group was found to be less than 06 months (46%), then is 7-12 months (33%). Environmental risk factors found to be involved in cases of ARI were poverty (73.5%), rural residency with poor cross ventilation in houses (poor or no cross ventilation 66%), no or partial immunization was 35% with malnutrition of sick children 76% may contribute to development of illness more quickly than other children. Illiteracy among mothers (78%) and 39% among fathers. CONCLUSIONS: ARI is more common in infants less than 6 months of age and males are more affected as compared to female children. Poor socioeconomic status, Illiteracy, poor or no cross ventilation in houses, poor immunization status and malnutrition are the key risk factors.

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