Sana Ashiq, Kanwal Ashiq, Shabana Shabana, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Mehwish Qayyum, Haleema Sadia.
Prevalence and role of different risk factors with emphasis on genetics in development of pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Pak Heart J Jan ;52(4):279-87.

To focus on the prevalence and role of different risk factors contributing in pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). Relevant articles published between 2006 and 2018 were studied with the help of various data bases including Google scholar, PubMed, Medline, Springer link, and Science direct. Articles published only in indexed journals were taken in account to ensure the credibility of data. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a silently progressive chronic disorder which generally establishes overtime to an advance stage till the symptoms appear. In high income countries, the mortality rate has declined since 1980 whereas, middle and low income countries bear three quarters of the global CAD burden. South Asians are at a greater risk and the prevalence is 50% to 300%higher than the rest of the world. It is a multifactorial disorder and arises from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The conventional CAD risk factors (CRFs) include age, gender, blood lipids, smoking, blood pressure and diabetes. Most of the CAD risk factors are modifiable by targeting lifestyle changes, drug intervention and prior identification of those who are at high risk of developing disease. The variability in disease susceptibility in individual sexposed to similar environmental factors and having almost same CRFs can be attributed to the genetic variations. Genetic testing may improve discrimination over and above the CRFs.

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