Rao Nouman Ali, Khalid Hussain, Hassam Khalid, Zain Yasin, Attiq-ur Rehman.
A case report on continent isolated male epispadias..
Professional Med J Jan ;27(06):1320-2.

Epispadias is a rare congenital anomaly in which the urethral opening is on the dorsal surface of penis. Its incidence is 1 in 117000 newborn males and 1 in 484000 in newborn females. Its etiology is considered as because of failure of medial migration of mesenchyme between the ectodermal and endodermal layers of cloacal membrane due to premature rupture of cloacal membrane. Epispadias often presents as exstrophy epispadias complex, a wide spectrum of abnormalities that consist of classic bladder exstrophy, Epispadias and cloacal exstrophy. This case was not a part of exstrophy epispadias complex and it was an isolated continent epispadias which is extremely rare and it was managed with Cantwell Ransley epispadias repair technique.

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