Muhammad Hanif Mengal, Hina Abbas, Kiran Aamir, Aamir Ramzan.
Inherited Protein C and Protein S Deficiency in Renal Transplant Candidates of Sindh Province, Pakistan.
Gomal J Med Sci Jan ;17(4):117-22.
Background: Thrombophilia is a common risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of inherited protein C and protein S deficiency in renal transplant candidates of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan from 16-10-2010 to 15-4-2011. 300 renal transplant candidates were selected. Candidates with acquired thrombotic disorders, women taking oral contraceptives and patients taking anti-coagulants during previous one week were excluded. Venous blood samples were collected before starting dialysis procedure or at least two days after last dialysis session. Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was parted using plastic pipettes and protein C and protein S were processed on coagulation analyzer. Sex, age groups (<40 and >= 40years), presence of protein C deficiency and presence of protein S deficiency were nominal variables and analyzed by count and percentage along with population parameters. Results: 300 renal transplant candidates included 199 (66.33%) men and 101 (33.67%) women and 238 (79.33%) in age group <40 years and 62 (20.67%) cases in age group >=40 years. Prevalence of protein C deficiency was 6.66% (20/300) and of protein S deficiency was 4% (12/300). Prevalence of PC deficiency was higher in men 5.33% than women 1.33%. Also prevalence of PS deficiency was higher in men 3.0% than women 1.0%. Prevalence of PC deficiency was higher in age group <40 years 5.67% than >=40 years 1.0%. Also prevalence of PS deficiency was higher in age group <40 years 3.33% than >=40 years 0.66%. Conclusion: More prolonged and follow-up studies are needed to define the true significance of deficiency of protein C and S (coagulation inhibitors) in post-transplant settings.
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