Raja, Sajid Ali, Badil, Pawan Kumar, Washdev.
Anxiety and depression among type-2 diabetic patients at a tertiary care hospital - frequency and associated factors of anxiety and depression among type-ii diabetic clients.
J Med Sci Jan ;28(2):129-35.

Objectives: To determine the frequency and associated factors of anxiety and depression among type-2 DM patients. Material and Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in outpatient department (OPD) of single public sector hospital of Karachi. Calculated sample size was 323. Subjects were approached by systematic random sampling method. Data was collected by adapted questionnaire. Chi-square test applied to identify the associated factors. P-value less than 0.05was counted as significant. Results: Out of 323 participants, 290 (89.8%) were males. The mean age was 42.14 +- 7.24 years. The incidence of diabetics with comorbid anxiety and depression was reported 36.5 %. Statistically association of anxiety and depression was established with gender (p-value<0.001), age (p-value<0.001), educational status (p-value<0.001), occupation (p-value<0.006), monthly family income (p-value<0.001) and smoking status (p-value<0.001). Anxiety and depression related to diabetes is affected by age groups, it is observed that middle age-group patients suffering more than younger age-group. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are facing more psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, significant association of anxiety and depression was found with age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income and smoking history of the participants.

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