Sabahat Amir, Yasir Rahman, Syed Imad Ali Shah, Arshia Munir, Syed Kaleem-ur Rehman, Shazia Bahar.
Congestive cardiac failure in children with ventricular septal defect.
J Med Sci Jan ;28(2):125-8.

Objective: To find the frequency of children with ventricular septal defect presenting with congestive cardiac failure. Material and method: This is a cross sectional descriptive study; carried out in a pediatric unit of a tertiary care hospital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar from June 2018 till December 2019. Results: 209 infants and children with ventricular septal defect were enrolled. 146 (69.9%) were males and 63 (30.1%) females. Minimum age of the patient was 0.9 years and maximum age was 8.5 years. Feeding difficulty was found in 90% of patients, dyspnea in 59.8% of patients, repeated chest infection was seen in 49.8%, failure to thrive in 69.9%, tachycardia in 83.3%, displaced apex beat in 59.8%, cardiomegaly in 90%, hepatomegaly in 43.1%, VSD murmur in all 100% of patients and edema was observed in 56.5% and tachypnea in 40.7% of patients with majority of patients presenting with combination of more than three clinical features. Conclusion: Ventricular septal defect is not uncommon in our population. This study proves that the clinical picture of VSD has a big variety and care must be taken while these clinical features are observed in younger age groups or its combination to get the correct diagnosis in time.

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