Muhammad Saleh Memon, Shahid Ahsan, Muhammad Fahadullah, Khalida Parveen, Sumaira Salim, Muhammad Faisal Fahim.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Direct Ophthalmoscopy and Non-Mydriatic Retinal Photography by Trained Optometrists for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy.
Pak J Ophthalmol Jan ;36(2):11-2.

Purpose: To determine the reliability of direct ophthalmoscopy and Non-Mydriatic fundus photography for screening of Diabetic Retinopathy by optometrist. Study Design: Observational, cross sectional. Place and Duration of Study: Al-Ibrahim eye hospital, Karachi from October to December 2018. Material and Methods: All individuals with type 2 diabetes of>= 40 years of age were screened for diabetic retinopathy (DR) by two trained optometrists and an ophthalmologist. First Optometrist used Non Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NMFC) and second optometrist used direct ophthalmoscopy (DO) after dilating the pupils. Final examination was done by the Ophthalmologist with slit lamp using Volk fundus lens which was considered as reference standard. Every investigator was kept unaware of the findings of others.

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