Umaira Zaib, Saleem Rana, Muhammad Ibrahim Ansari, Hafiz Azeem Akhtar, Kaleemullah Abro, Muhammad Siddique Ansari.
Challenges to timely initiation of breast-feeding in rural area of District Sargodha, Pakistan.
Rawal Med J Jan ;45(4):930-3.

Pakistan Objective: To assess and find the barriers of timely initiation of breast feeding. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural area (2 Union councils) of District Sargodha with 202 child`s Mothers as sample size with systematic random sampling method. A questionnaire was developed for data collection. Frequencies for all the variables were recorded. Chi-square test of independence was used for identifying possible significant barriers influencing early initiation of breast feeding. Results: Only 35.1% of the mothers started early breast feeding (within one hour after birth). 27.7% mothers had primary level education. Household income of the maximum (72%) study subjects was less then Rs. 10,000. 29.2% mothers were less than 20 years of age at marriage. Various barrier were highlighted for early initiation of breast feeding including number of children (p=0.00) and extended/nuclear family (p=0.00). Normal deliveries (p=0.00), deliveries at health care center/clinic (p=0.00), knowledge about the ANC (p=0.00), knowledge through media remained effective (p=0.00) and supportive, (p=0.00). Around 37.6% of females said that they were facing problems during breast feeding including low milk supply (69%) followed by sore nipples (15%), low birth weight (12%) and beast infections (4%). Another important aspect highlighted that 40.1% females provided Ghuti as baby`s first food; honey by 35.6%, green tea by 3% and Formula milk by 6.4%. Conclusion: Low prevalence was due to lack of proper knowledge regarding the early initiation of breast feeding among the newly delivered mother are especially with cesarean delivery.

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