Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan, Sadia Khalil, Bushra Saddiq, Khalil Ahmad, Qazi Adnan Jamil, Jafir Hussain Shirazi, Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Sajid-ur Rehman, Kashif-ur Rehman Khan, Muhammad Imran Aziz.
Phytochemical, antimicrobial and time-kill kinetics potentials of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham.: a Cholistan desert medicinal plant..
Pak J Pharm Sci Jan ;33(5):2461-9.

Euphorbia nivulia a locally occurring plant species possesses antiseptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is ethnopharmacologically used in various ailments like skin, ear disorders, boils, and worm infestation. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids, polyphenolics, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and triterpenoids in (70% aqueous-ethanolic) Euphorbia nivulia crude extract (En cr) and its four fractions, i.e., hexane fraction (En hex), butanol fraction (En bt), chloroform fraction (En ch), and aqueous fraction (En aq). In current study, Agar well diffusion and time-kill kinetic assays were performed for antimicrobial activity. 300 mg/ml concentration showed maximum inhibitory zone. Highest zone of inhibition (15.5mm) was demonstrated by En ch fraction against Proteus mirabilis. Staphyllococcus aureus was the most sensitive bacteria against whom all fractions except En aq fraction were active. Maximum MIC (15.3 mg/ml) was shown by En ch fraction against Proteus mirabilis. Similarly, En ch fraction showed (15.1 mg/ml) remarkable MIC against Candida albicans. Significant higher antibacterial and antifungal activity was revealed in high concentration. Time-kill kinetics studies revealed bacteriostatic action. Noteworthy antimicrobial activity may be due to bioactive compounds of extract which may be a potential antibacterial and antifungal agent.

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