Amir Riaz Bhutta, Andleeb Khanam, Mohammad Waheed, Azhar Javaid Bukhari, Khalid Javed Abid.
Conversion from Laproscopic Cholecystectomy to open Cholecystectomy when and why?.
Ann King Edward Med Uni Jan ;10(4):404-5.

In this study 450 patients presented with symptomatic cholelithiasis, under went Laproscopic cholecystectomy from 1-1-2003 to 30-6-2004.Sex ratio showed that 92% were female and 8% male patients. Most of the cases 44% are in the age group 40-49 years. About 74% patients had chronic cholecystitis while 15% had acute cholecystitis. Mucocoele was present in 6%and empyema in 5% of cases. Conversion from laproscopic to open cholecystsectomy was done in 14 patients i.e 3.11%. The reason for conversion among these patients was acute cholecystitsis in 1.33% and anatomy was not clear. Heamorrhage occurred in 0.88%, empyema gall bladder with thickened, odematous gall bladder in 0.66% cases. Hypotention occurred in one patient.

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