Muhammad Usman, Anjum Mehdi, Kamran Naseem, Abdul Rauf, Khawaja Khurshid Ahmad, Muhammad Nawaz Anjum.
Optimization of patient radiation dose in CT scan.
Pak J Radiol Jan ;15(2):19-27.
Computed tomography (CT) has evolved continuously since its introduction in medical imaging in early 1970`s. Over the years improvements such as, spatial resolution, low contrast delectability and acquisition speed, have been achieved through improvements in both hardware and software. The latest scanning generation is multidetector row helical CT scans. However the ionization radiation hazards are associated with benefits of CT scan. It is a diagnostic imaging modality giving higher patient dose in comparison with other radiological procedures. Optimization of radiation dose to the patient means that radiation exposure should be as low as compatible with diagnostic image quality. This can be achieved by (a) reducing the number of sections, (b) reducing the absorbed dose per section. It can be achieved through departmental policies regarding the use of dose saving equipments and use of proper radiographic techniques for individual examinations. One of the best ways to optimize patient radiation exposure in the department is to have a comprehensive quality assurance system, which includes the periodic measurements of patient doses. The purpose of this review article is to outline basic principles of CT radiation exposure and emphasize the need for CT radiation dose optimization based on modification of scanning parameters and application of recent technologic innovations.
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