Asma Shaukat, Tariq Mahmud Arain, Amna Shahid.
Microalbuminuria: Incidence in patients of diabetes mellitus at Bahawalpur.
Pak J Pathol Jan ;16(1):17-21.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of microalbuminuria in patients of diabetes mellitus.(type 1 and type 2) at Bahawalpur. Study design: Comparative, cross-sectional study. Place and duration of study: Bahawal Victoria Hospital, from September 99 to December. 02. Subjects and Methods: 120 patients (Males=52 ;Females=68, aged 10-80 years); with DM (Type 1 or 2) were included in the study. Detection of proteinuria was done by dry chemistry system using Medi-Test (Combi 10-Macherey-Nagel). Proteinuria was confirmed by repeated testing and by measuring urinary protein excreted in 24 hours. Patients with proteinuria were not screened for microalbuminnuria. Screening for microalbuminuria was done on spot urine samples by dry chemistry systems using Micral -Test (Roche Diagnostic). If the urine was positive for albumin, the test was repeated on two further occasions, over the next few weeks; if on two of three tests raised, 24- hour collection of urine was done to measured the albumin excretion rate (AER). If AER was increased monitoring at each review visit was done. Funduscopy of all study subjects was done. Blood pressure was recorded on each visit and if raised, treatment with an ACE inhibitor was started; Baseline GFR was measured. If AER was normal on two of three occasions, AER was re-measured at the next review appointment. Results: Out of 120 diabetics studied, 43.33% were males and 56.67% were females. Fifty percent of the females with DM and 29.1% of the males had microalbuminuria. Twenty (16.7%) of the diabetics had type 1 DM, out of them 50% had microalbuminuria. The duration of diabetes did not affect the incidence of microalbuminuria. Hundred (83.3%) of the studied patients had type 2 DM, 45% of this group was found to have microalbuminuria. Neither the incidence of proteinuria nor that of microalbuminuria was affected by the duration of diabetes. Fifty eight of the diabetics studied were hypertensive. 48.2% of hypertensive diabetics had microalbuminuria and 24.1% proteinuria. Incidence of microalbuminuria (73.9% and 72.72% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively) was common in diabetics with age ranging between 40-69 years. Conclusion: Incidence of microalbuminuria is high on our setup, reflecting poor glycaemic control.

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