Sameer Shahid Amin, Muhammad Ahsan Mukhtar.
Diabetic Retinopathy - Recent Developments And Challenges.
Pak Armed Forces Med J Jan ;56(2):182-8.

Diabetic retinopathy is still a leading cause of blindness. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease is increasing as new biochemical pathways are identified. Our ability to diagnosis and classify retinopathy is also improving. In addition, the treatment of diabetic retinopathy involves not just laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy surgery but now also includes control of blood glucose, hypertension, and serum lipids. Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone effectively reduces macular thickening due to diffuse diabetic macular edema, at least in the short term. Further studies are required to demonstrate that it provides visual benefit. In the near future, clinical trials of several pharmacologic agents may lead to the introduction of additional treatments and reduction in the frequency of visual loss. Despite improvements in treatment of diabetic retinopathy, the management of progressive changes remains a challenge and many problems have still to be surmounted. This is a review article

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